Testing is critical for ensuring the performance of electrical systems or components, whether it's for military or consumer products. AERO NAV LABORATORIES provides a wide variety of electrical testing services tailored to the specific requirements of each individual project. The following article describes some of the electrical tests which are most often performed by AERO NAV LABS.
The electrostatic discharge test is designed to determine the ability of equipment to perform its intended function without permanent degradation of performance as a result of an air discharged electrostatic pulse. Electrostatic discharge is the result of an unbalanced electrical charge. Typically, it is created by insulator surfaces rubbing together or pulling apart. A transfer of electrostatic charge between bodies (materials, components, etc.) at different electrostatic potentials is caused by direct contact.
Electromagnetic interference (also known as radio frequency interference) tests are used to determine the electromagnetic characteristics of electrical, electronic, and electro-mechanical equipment. Electromagnetic interference, both radiated or conducted, can affect the performance of equipment. Electromagnetic interference tests are specified as follows: conducted emission, radiated emission, conducted susceptibility, and radiated susceptibility.
Conducted emissions are internal electromagnetic emissions propagated along a power or signal conductor, creating noise. The noise is subsequently transferred to the equipment. This test method is used for measuring conducted emissions on power leads, and antenna terminals.
The conducted susceptibility test is performed to determine a device's ability to operate in the presence of an external interference signal propagated via a conductor. This method is used to determine whether equipment is susceptible to external electromagnetic energy injected on its power leads, antenna ports, and interconecting cables.
Radiated emission is the electromagnetic energy propagated through space. This test method is used to determine a device's ability to operate in the presence of radiated emission.
The radiated susceptibility test is performed to determine a device's ability to operate in the presence of an external interference signal propagated via free space.
This test relates to interfering signals that may be generated by interconnected equipment. Induced signal testing is used to determine if equipment will withstand various signals, such as might be introduced by failures in other equipment to which the test unit is connected.
INDUCED SIGNAL SUSCEPTIBILITY
The induced signal susceptibility test determines whether the equipment and its interconnected circuit configuration will accept a level of induced voltages caused by the installation environment. The test relates specifically to interfering signals related to the power frequency and its harmonics, audio frequency signals, and electrical transients that are generated by other on-board equipment or systems, and coupled to sensitive circuits within the equipment under test through its interconnecting wiring.
Lightning testing is used to determine the ability of externally mounted electrical and electronic equipment to withstand the direct effects of a lightning strike.
These tests are intended to determine the ability of externally mounted electrical and electronic equipment to withstand the direct effects of an actual lightning strike. It also includes connecting cables and associated terminal equipment furnished by the equipment manufacturer as a part of the equipment.
INDUCED TRANSIENT SUSCEPTIBILITY
These test methods apply idealized waveforms which simulate the effects of lightning, to verify the capability of equipment to withstand effects of lightning induced electrical transients.
This test determines if an object can operate normally in strong externally generated magnetic environments. The magnetic effect test helps to assist in determining the proper location of the equipment in the installation.
The soldering tests are conducted to determine if materials can withstand soldering effects, such as resistance to soldering heat, as well as the solderability of components during the manufacturing process.
RESISTANCE TO SOLDERING HEAT
The test is performed for the purpose of determining whether component parts can withstand the effects of the heat to which they will be subjected during the soldering of their terminations. The heat can be either conducted heat through the termination into the component part, or radiant heat emanating from the solder dip or soldering iron when in close proximity to the body of the component part, or both. The heat of soldering can affect the electrical characteristics and cause mechanical damage to the part as well. Electrical characteristics of resistive elements, semiconductor devices, soldered connections, and insulation materials are affected in varying degrees by heat. Mechanical damage, such as loosening of terminations of windings, softening of insulation, opening of solder seals, and weakening of mechanical joints, can occur.
The purpose of this test is to determine the solderability of solid and stranded wires up to 1/8 inch thickness, as well as lugs, tabs, hook leads, turrets, etc., which are normally joined by a soldering operation. This determination is made on the basis of the ability of these terminations to be wetted by a new coating of solder, or to form a suitable fillet when dip soldered to a specially prepared solderable wire. An accelerated aging test is included in this method which simulates a period of natural aging under a combination of various storage conditions. This test, simulates the effect of the environment on materials prior to soldering.